Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Explication of Ã¢â¬Å"A SummerÃ¢â¬â¢s DayÃ¢â¬ Shakespeare establishes his theme by shifting procreational beauty to the idea of immortalized beauty. Shakespeare's use of personification, literal meanings, and metaphors enables him to illustrate his compassion in the idea of immortality. In Sonnet 18 Shakespeare uses personification heavily in giving objects human qualities to reflect establish mortality in his muse. Doing so, helps the reader relate to the object to life and death.The first instance of personification is in the first quatrain , Shakespeare writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,Ã¢â¬ meaning Ã¢â¬Å"Winds choke the lovely buds with hands of MayÃ¢â¬ . On the first quatrain Shakespeare writes, Ã¢â¬Å"And SummerÃ¢â¬â¢s lease hath all too short a date:Ã¢â¬ (4). In this line Shakespeare is referring to Summer being too short. By this personification on the first quatrain, Shakespeare conveys the depth of his affection towards his love inte rest by giving a descriptive metaphor about his beloved comparing her to something intangible as a Ã¢â¬Å"Summer dayÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Lovely budsÃ¢â¬ being more beautiful than nature.He creates a life in words with the personification. In the second quatrain, Shakespeare writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines,Ã¢â¬ (5). He uses the reference of Ã¢â¬Å"Eye of heavenÃ¢â¬ to convey the idea of the sky being a face with the sun becoming the eye. On the next line Shakespeare writes, Ã¢â¬Å"And often is his gold complexion dimmÃ¢â¬â¢d;Ã¢â¬ (6). In this line Shakespeare describes how clouds often go behind clouds. In this line Shakespeare illustrates how intense his love for his beloved yet, nature can get in the way of love such as clouds or mortality.In Sonnet 18, those whom are unfamiliar with the writing of Shakespeare may think or feel they have to decipher what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re reading. In some instances this is true, but not for all. This is where literal meanings play an important role in understanding some important ideas. In the second quatrain, Shakespeare says, Ã¢â¬Å"And every fair from fair sometime declines,Ã¢â¬ (7). This is saying almost exactly what it sounds like, everything beautiful will sometime be lost. On the couplet, Shakespeare writes, Ã¢â¬Å"So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,Ã¢â¬ (13).In this he is referring to his love being everlasting as if his writing is forever cemented as people continue to read and live. Shakespeare uses metaphors to create an effect that gives his writing an eloquence, while such effects are also used in his prose. First quatrain, Shakespeare writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Thou art more lovely and more temperate:Ã¢â¬ In this heÃ¢â¬â¢s saying you are more lovely and more constant, in comparison to a summerÃ¢â¬â¢s day. In quatrain 2, Shakespeare says, Ã¢â¬Å"By chance or natureÃ¢â¬â¢s changing course umtrimmÃ¢â¬â¢dÃ¢â¬ (8).Shakespeare is referring to death as a misfortune, or by na tureÃ¢â¬â¢s planned course. In the third quatrain, Shakespeare writes, Ã¢â¬Å"By thy eternal summer shall not fadeÃ¢â¬ (9). The idea here is your youth will not fade. The very next line, Ã¢â¬Å"Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;Ã¢â¬ (10), This line is saying nor will you lose the beauty that you possess. In the last line of the third quatrain, Shakespeare writes, Ã¢â¬Å"When in eternal lines to time thou growest:Ã¢â¬ (12), this line is saying because in my eternal work you will live forever, thus, giving the poem immortality.Shakespeare's Sonnet 18 to challenges age and time and, thus, becomes everlasting, conveying the beauty of the fair youth down to expected generations through his words. Shakespeare attempts to compare this person to summer, yet summer could never be as magnificent or consistent. The beloved in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s view could never grow old or ugly and death could not even destroy this fair youth. This notion of beauty being immortalized in the poem.Whether it be written through personification, literal meanings or metaphors, Shakespeare always seemed to convey his ideas through his works. The idea of surviving or giving someone eternal life though literary works is genius. Sonnet 18 is about someone Shakespeare loves, that is immortalized in this Sonnet. The line the concretes the idea of immortality is Ã¢â¬Å"So long as men can breathe or eyes can see/ So long lives this and this gives life to thee. Ã¢â¬ (13-14)
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
What is the strategic significance of the BMW Z3 launch? Firstly, the launch of the BMW Z3 is significant for the company as it helped the company inch closer towards their long term goal in becoming a global brand. Prior to the introduction of BMW Z3, the most common mindset of the general public about BMW is that the superior quality of their products are due to the fact that it was made in Germany. With the Z3 manufactured in Spartanburg USA, BMW can show that they can be a successful global company by manufacturing at strategic locations even when itÃ¢â¬â¢s not in Bavaria.Furthermore, this launch had helped people to associate the quality of BMWÃ¢â¬â¢s product to the company itself rather than its manufacturing location. Secondly, the launch of Z3 further supported BMWÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to reposition their brand from Ã¢â¬Å"Yuppie Status SymbolÃ¢â¬ to their much preferred Ã¢â¬Å"Ultimate Driving MachineÃ¢â¬ . As shown by the BMW Unit Sales History, this campaign was succes sful in helping BMW increase their unit sales in the U. S. and Worldwide by 10. 7 thousands and 16. 2 thousands respectively in a year. This is significant as the Z3 helped generate dealer traffic while stimulating interest in other BMW product line.Lastly, the production of the Z3 model also satisfied the needs of a certain segment in the market while simultaneously enabling them to become the pioneer of the modern roadster category by releasing it before their such as Porsche and Mercedes. The Z3 appealed to the Generation-Xers as it gives them a sense of uniqueness, it appealed the Gen-40s as the Z3 materialized their roadster car theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve been dreaming of all their lives and lastly, the Z3 reminded the Baby Boomer of the roadsters of yesteryear. 2. How would you measure the overall performance of the launch?In my opinion, one way to measure the overall performance of the launch is by simply comparing the projected unit sales against the actual unit sales. However, another way of measuring Z3Ã¢â¬â¢s launch performance is by analyzing the publicity impact of BMWÃ¢â¬â¢s advertising campaign such as: 1 The GoldenEye Product Placement: This was a brilliant decision as it allowed them to, without any monetary fee, add attractiveness to the Z3 and reach foreign customers and younger generation who are generally harder to reach.In addition, the time gap between the movieÃ¢â¬â¢s premier and the Z3Ã¢â¬â¢s launch gave BMW the opportunity to build cars to exact customer specification. 2 Neiman Marcus Catalog: By offering a James Bond edition of the Z3 in the catalog, BMW had successfully created a buzz and excitement by requiring over 6000 customers to be on a waitlist to purchase the 100 cars that were available. 3 BMW Internet Site: The Ã¢â¬Å"Build Your Own RoadsterÃ¢â¬ module was important as it generated buzz by building excitement, anticipation and awareness towards the Z3 and perhaps other models.4 Press Launch in Central Park: This particular activity resulted in extensive coverage in both broadcast and print news companies. This was a good decision as it increases the awareness of the product with a higher reach than many traditional advertising methods. 5 Jay Leno & Radio DJ Program: Normally, I would advocate against practicing these methods of advertising as they are a very risky and has a very large reach. However, the amount of word of mouth resulted from these methods suggests that this program was in fact successful.6 Ã¢â¬Å"Go: An American Road StoryÃ¢â¬ Video: In my opinion, this method was unnecessary as the emotional and nostalgic content of the video contradicts with Z3Ã¢â¬â¢s new and exciting image. 3 What are your recommendations for the Phase 2 and why? After the success of the first phase, BMW now faces another problem as they must formulate a strategy that can both sustain the public interest and convert those interests into actual order. To preserve the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s interest, BMW can maintain c ontacts with their potential customers by disclosing relevant messages through e-mail, mail, or phone.The content of these messages should be designed in a manner that will stimulate an immediate physical or psychological reaction. For instance, the message can include an information regarding the current state and development of the Z3 or perhaps the message can include an invitation to take the Z3 for a trial during a specific time window. To convert interests to actual order, I would recommend BMW to implement a more informative advertising rather than another awareness building, non-traditional marketing.For instance, perhaps now BMW can inform its audience about its financing option for the Z3 or the steps that they can take to pre-order the car. Should they implement another non-traditional marketing campaign, they may wane off the charm and effectiveness of their initial advertising, thus slowly turning them into a traditional marketing in the future. As non-traditional marke ting was essential to the success of Z3Ã¢â¬â¢s introduction, it would be within BMWÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest to prevent excessive non-traditional marketing so that they can continue to implement it for their future new product offerings.
Monday, July 29, 2019
The Cabinet - Essay Example The 1962 cabinet represented high family-based ties in the political arena. Even though members of the cabinet had different personalities and backgrounds, they share close family relationships in one way or another. For example, the Al-Asabah family and the larger Asil family held a significant proportion of the cabinet over the aforementioned period. Majority of cabinet members came from influential Kuwaiti families. In this respect, dominant cabinet ministers also represented some of the most influential families in the history of Kuwait. Over and above family-based monopoly in the cabinet, a significant number of cabinet members were well off compared to the rest of the population. Majority of cabinet ministers came from wealthy families, and most importantly, they were wealthy themselves. This made them even more influential as far as the politics of the country were concerned. In addition, more than 50% of ministers in Kuwait were in their 30s or 40s in terms of age. This made the 1962-1988 Kuwait cabinet one of the most youthful around the world. Even as Kuwait made critical progress politically, education and literacy levels were still a challenge to the larger populace. Cabinet members had basic education, but most of them lacked advanced academic and professional experience. For example, the number of engineers in Kuwait was significantly low at a time when the newly independent nation was striving to invest heavily in technological development. In 1962, engineers were less than ten in the entire Kuwaiti population. Critical disparities were also evident in regards to where ministers attended their school. Cabinet members with basic primary education attended school locally, and so did members who had secondary education. College and university degrees, however, required that education be accessed outside Kuwait. This shows that some Kuwaiti
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Self improvement plan - Essay Example I practice each grammar point until I can be able to use it easily. I will search for a book that has grammar exercises and answers. Online quizzes and activities will also be helpful. I will be focusing on a particular grammar point every time I study. Thirdly, I will be concentrating on grammar when reading the newspaper every morning. I will have to understand the reason why each sentence has been written in a certain way. Whenever I come across a sentence, I will be asking myself if I am to make the same sentences. When challenged, I will find exercises from textbooks for the grammar points and practice. Lastly, I will read and practice. The more I read, the better will be my vocabulary and grammar. If possible, I will be reading aloud; will help in listening to correct grammar as I read. I will also watch television at times more so what I am really interested in with BBC being a great
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Accounting analysis - Case Study Example The charity Help Our Homeless Offspring, look forward towards violating the rule of exceeding 25 percent expenditure and funding to survive. They must have an expensive TV for advertisement. The resulting effect is an increased expenditure to funding ratio beyond 25 percent. Such activities are unethical and unacceptable because they contradict accounting principles (Needles, Powers and Crosson, 2011). The accountant of HOH felt that the misallocation of cost at the expense of exploiting the willing donors was an unethical act because it contradicts accounting principle (Vanderbeck, 2013). For example, the following principles were violated namely; full disclosure principle, cost principle and reliability accounting principle. HOH charity should disclose the true state of affairs and avoid misleading the donors, as well as other users of accounting information (Smith, 2011). Further, the information disclose should be reliable to avoid making wrong decision. The senior accountant in this case tends to justify unethical acts applied by the company (Lerner and Cashin, 2009). As an accountant who adheres to the accounting ethics, it will be inappropriate to do nothing because misallocation of cost contravene the principle discussed. I would, therefore, tell my corporation to embrace the accounting principles. Instead of misallocating the cost to mislead the donors, the corporation should focus on minimizing its variable cost. I would not encourage my corporation to work with HOHO because the top management are encouraging unethical practices (Duska, Duska and Ragatz,
The Communication Technology Effect in Business - Research Paper Example It has examined and analyzed literature related to the use of the internet, emails, websites, social media as well as wireless technology devices such as smartphones, radio frequency, cloud computing devices and other cellular devices. This discussion demonstrates how these technologies are used for communication purposes within an internal department of a business and also with the outside world, and the ways they have been used in communication to benefit the business organizations. This paper also discusses the advantages that these communication technologies have offered to business over time as well as the limiting factors of the same.Ã Ã Incidentals of Authorization and Submittal This study of communication technology effects in business is submitted to Mr. Dennis H. Mohle, BA 105W Instructor, on Dec 10, 2013. As authorized on Jan 22, the research and was conducted under the direction of Dennis H. Mohle of Business Communication Research, LLP. The objective of the Study Ob jective of communication technology effect in business Research Study: The objective of the study was to explore and examine how advancement in communication technology has impacted on the way business operations are conducted locally and internationally. Use of Observational Techniques The methodology used in this investigation was observational and analysis of the literal information and statistics available from research articles, peer-reviewed journals, books, periodicals and the internet on the effect of communication technology in business.Ã Ã
Friday, July 26, 2019
COMPANY LAW - Essay Example And when this problem occurs, Black Books may find itself enmeshed in huge debts owing to corporate inactivity; (iii) loss of control on the companyÃ¢â¬âthis means that in the event of incurring huge debts due to poor performance, the lenders may request that the current management at Black Books be replaced by receivership or administration that are external and has little knowledge of how Black Books has been run (Mead and Sagar, 2006). The major problem associated with incurring huge debts or going insolvent is that it may destroy a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s brand image that had been developed for years. And if this condition occurs or left to persist, it would be difficult for Black Books to regain the loyalty of its long- 2 time customers who may have begun to boycott the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s books for another one (Omar, 2004). However, the main advantage of sourcing operating capital through loan or borrowing from lenders is that Black Books could claim tax relief on the interests payabl e to service the loan (Mead and Sagar, 2006). ... But using share capital appears safe for Black Books (if the company has chosen this method earlier on) because there would be no fear of going bankrupt owing to the restrictions on the utilization of Black BooksÃ¢â¬â¢ assets placed under the lenders as collateral securities. Hence, Black Books can continue to operate and protect its brand image from being sullied due to insolvency and the take-over of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s administration by a new set of managers, who may lack adequate information about the true state of the company (Omar, 2004). 3 (ii) Black Books is expected to create debentures, which are the documents detailing the terms of borrowing capital loan from the lenders. Black Books has also indicated in the debentures some floating charges on some or all of its assets so as to fulfill the requirements stipulated by the lenders. However, some formalities must be strictly followed in order to draw up the appropriate debentures necessary for Black Books to get the loan. And each of the formalities has legal consequences as explained in the series of processes below: (a) Black Books approaches Lender to borrow ?500,000; the formality here is offering a legal mortgage of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s land as a security for the loan in favour of the Lender. This entails that the Lender has powers on the propertyÃ¢â¬âit could either restrict Black BooksÃ¢â¬â¢ access to the land or sell it off when the company failed to pay the loan interests (Dakin et al., 2002). (b) Black Books wants to issue a first floating charge over the company's assets to the extent of ?100,000 in favour of the company's major trade creditor, Supplier, and include a "negative pledge" clauseÃ¢â¬âthe essence of a negative clause is to give the
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Employer Liability to Unlawful Acts of Employees - Essay Example However, from 1941, a series of laws were made which prohibited employers from firing employees for no reason. The Executive Order 8802, was the first law that prohibited racial discrimination, later in 1964, the Civil Rights Issue and amendments were created, in 1990 the Americans with Disabilities Act was created which protected disabled Americans. In 1993, the Medical and Family Leave Act and many other laws that protected employees were formed (Mackey & Daniel, 1986). The employment law came into existence to protect employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights. The Fair labor Standards Act ensures that employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ overtime pay is paid to the employees who work for more than 40 hours a week and it also regulates employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ minimum wages. The Americans Disability Act ensures equal treatment for persons with disability, it protects employees with disabilities form being mistreated by their employers and fellow employees (Walsh & David, 2013). Employment Law prohibits racial discrimination , all employees are supposed to be treated equally regardless of race, sex, religion, gender, age and national origin. These laws ensure equal employment opportunities and every employee is subject to wages. There are three major exceptions; public-policy exception, under this exception an employer should not terminate an employee for claiming compensation after being injured in the line of duty. The other exception is the implied-contract, this is where there is formation of an implied contract between an employee and an employer but there is no written document regarding the employment but the relationship exists (Walsh & David, 2013). Lastly, the Covenant-of-good-faith means that any malicious decisions by the employer are prohibited. All workers should be aware of the situations that make their employers liable. An employer is liable to a co-worker if the co-worker is dismissed without a reason of dismissal which follows the rules regarding the contract. The employer should be h eld liable if the environment where workers are operating is not safe, workers should be in protective gears if the environment under which they are operating is risky and cause harm. The employer is also liable if a worker is sexually harassed in the organization or the business premises. Employers should put in place measures that protect all employees from sexual harassment. If an employer breaches a contract between suppliers, they are held liable by the suppliers. If a supplier is supposed to supply items to a firm and the employer terminates the contract without the consent of the supplier, the supplier should hold the employer liable (Walsh & David, 2013). If the supplier incurred losses on the account of the employer the employer will be held liable to the losses incurred which may include; destruction of property already received by the firm. If a company has purchased certain items and they spoil in the hands of the employer the employer is liable for the goods and not the supplier. The law states that if you have more than fifteen employees and your business is an interstate commerce, the business is under the Title VII in the Civil Rights Act. It prohibits discriminatory acts and sexual harassment and describes sexual harassment as a type of sexual behavior that is inappropriate and unwelcome at the workplace. Sexual
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Case study 2 negotiation - Essay Example In this case, the supervisor is fast to dismiss DanyaÃ¢â¬â¢s application. According to Dwyer (2011), Ã¢â¬Å"Power is a useful tool in the negotiation process; however, if you misuse it or refuse to use it appropriately, the likely result is tension and conflictÃ¢â¬ (p. 154). The tension between the supervisor and Tanya came about as the supervisor used the power that he had over her to dismiss her application, and made comments that were not pleasing at all. If the supervisor had listened to DanyaÃ¢â¬â¢s positions and interests, he would have approached her in a calm manner that would not have threatened the relationship between them. This case study looks into the cause of the problem and how it impacted on the main participants. It also suggests and evaluates some solutions, recommends the best solution and explains how to implement it by using the Ã¢â¬Å"negotiation theory ". Analysis of the problem The problem can be analyzed by examining the negotiation approaches of Dany a and her supervisor. The problem occurs because both parties have interests to meet and the two are not keen to consider the other partyÃ¢â¬â¢s point view. DanyaÃ¢â¬â¢s interest are visiting her grandchild and wants to do so by taking advantage of the flight promotion so as to pay less for the flight. DanyaÃ¢â¬â¢s optimism of getting the leave and an addition of two weeks leave get thwarted and she gets devastated because of the rejection. The supervisor on the other hand has a contract that has a limited deadline and needs DanyaÃ¢â¬â¢s support because she happens to be one of the best worker. The problem ensued as the two parties could not agree on what should happen. The supervisor is stern on his decision and rejects her application without giving Danya a chance of explaining herself as to why she needed to have her break at that time. Furthermore, he acts out of the stress of the contract and allows the stress to overcome his thoughts and emotions and is quick to make n egative comments about Danya. According to Leimbach (2011), Ã¢â¬Å"Paying attention to interests helps uncover the "why" behind a position.Ã¢â¬ (p. 36). If Danya had listened to why the supervisor was not willing to grant her the leave, she would have understood him and there would not have been any problem. Danya also assumes that her being the best of the employees would definitely make the supervisor grant her, her wants. She was not ready for any outcome and was not flexible to allow herself take in any outcome of the application. She is quick to judge the supervisorÃ¢â¬â¢s actions and believes the company does not recognize her excellent performance, which makes her to burst out. She is also frustrated that she will lose the money of the ticket sheÃ¢â¬â¢d already paid for. She feels disappointed when her request is turned down by the supervisor who tells her that she is not showing any commitment to the company. According to Jenkins (1997), Ã¢â¬Å"with a principled negot iation approach, the salesperson focuses on the problem and how to solve itÃ¢â¬ (p. 30). In this case, instead of getting frustrated by the way the supervisor acted, she ought to have thought of how the misunderstanding of the supervisor thinking she has no commitment to the company would get settled. Range of solution The problem can be solved by number of ways. First of all, the supervisor should give Danya an offer of paying for her flight if she cooperates with them to meet the deadline. The other solution would be that Danya gets a
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Basic Critical Thinking - Essay Example The European debt crisis is one of the most critical financial huddles encountered by the global economy, but the problem is also perhaps the hardest to appreciate. The global economy has undergone slow growth since the financial crisis of 2008, which revealed the unsound fiscal policies of European countries and other countries across the globe (Rushe, 2012). Greece, which engaged in vigorous spending for years, was unable to institute financial reforms; thus was one of the initial countries to suffer the consequences of weak growth. This problem is relevant to the modern financial world since it reveals how slow growth causes slow tax incomes, resulting in exceedingly high and unsustainable budget deficits. The magnitude of the problem became evident as Greece announced that the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s debts exceeded the entire size of its economy. In order to curtail the European debt crisis, the European Union established a series of bailouts for the troubled economies, beginning with the 2010 110 billion Euro bailout for Greece, and subsequent bailouts for Ireland and Portugal in 2010 and 2011, respectively (Lynn, 2010). The EU and IMF establishe d a debt restructuring strategy for the countries experiencing debt issues. However, the action plan moved quite slowly because the EU requires consent from all union members before dispatching bailouts to troubled countries. It is hence critical that the EU develops effective and timely strategies to assist its member countries recover from the debt crisis. The problem essentially concerns European countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ inability to pay off their debts, owing to their dwindling economic capabilities. The boundaries of the problem situation are essentially the bounds of the European Union, and some of the most viable alternatives include seeking financial assistance from the international community so as to bail out all countries affected by the debt crisis. The greatest advantage
Monday, July 22, 2019
The important moment in the novel Lord of the flies Essay Lord of the flies focuses mainly on the corruption and inherent evil of humanity. Ralph, Jack and Simon are, in some ways, stereotypes of different aspects of human nature. Ralph is the obvious candidate for chief of the island, as he is of just nature and a commanding presence. We are also told that there was a stillness about Ralph that encourages the boys to elect him as their chief. Jack represents the darker side of humanity. Jack is not long in severing any links with civilisation. He heeds his savage, pre-historic instincts, and becomes dog-likeon all foursnose only a few inches from the humid earth. He is like an animal, his sole desire being to kill the pig. Cut her throat. Spill her blood. He enjoys the act of killing, announcing proudly that he had a smashing timeI cut the pigs throat. He laughingly adds that there was lashings of blood every whereyou should have seen it! His darker side gradually influences Ralph, who grows jealous of Jacks popularity and is envious of the fact that Jack is able to provide meat for the boys, while, he, as chief, cannot. The book reaches a turning point at the next, improvised, hunt of the boar. What started as a harmless exploration for the beast becomes a bloodthirsty chase of the boar. Ralph is delighted when he hits the boar and the spear stuck in a bit and he decides that hunting was good after all. Things take a more sinister turn when the boys decide to re-enact the hunt. After the first, successful hunt in which Jack kills the pig, the hunters replay events by forming a ring, Maurice pretended to be the pig and ran squealing into the centre, and the hunterspretended to beat him. This is harmless game, during which the hunters dance around the pig, singing their hunting chant of Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Bash her in. The corruption of purity and goodness is seen when the boys play the same game after their next (failed) hunt. This time Robert is the squealing pig, trapped in the centre of circle, the hunters circling him, singing their warrior chant. The game soon ceases to playful, as Roberts mock terror turns to pain. The others are seized with a desire to Kill him! Kill him! uncaring of the fact that Robert is human, one of them, and not a pig. Robert was screaming and struggling, yet he ceases to become a person and is now merely an object by which their thirst to kill might be quenched. Jack was brandishing his knifeRalph was fightingto get a handful of that brown, vulnerable fleshthe desireto hurt was over-mastering, Golding causes this to be important incident in the novel, the beginnings of a full realisation of Simons belief that maybe there is a beastmaybe its only us, is not a comment to be jeered at, for it is a frightening comprehension of reality. Robert escapes with a few, physical injuries, crying out, in an effort to lighten to the situation Oh, my bum! Ralph tries to convince that it was just a game, like rugger. This uneasiness is justified when the boys discuss methods of improving their game. Robert believes that they want a real pigbecause youve got to kill him. Jack, not altogether jokingly, suggests that they should Use a littlun. This suggestion is made more disturbing by the reaction of the other boys, for instead of being horrified, everybody laughed. Goldings brief ending to the passage leaves us disgusted by the callousness of Jacks remark and of his flippant attitude to the murder of a fellow human being, but it is worryingly representative of the callousness humankind. Jacks joke warns us of the increase of evil on the island, for the idea of using a littlun, may soon stop being an idea and become a reality. The passage is disturbing because we see that the boys lust for blood and death is indiscriminate of whether their victim is an animal or human. Killing is not a means of providing food for the boys; it is a way of satisfying their longing to cause pain and destruction. They are desperate to kill, a mere pig is not enough, they are not worth the trouble of a hunt, and their next victim shall be a human, for it will increase the enjoyment of their game. The boys do not care for the adventure of the hunt. They want only the exhilaration of killing, the sight of the blood and the joy of controlling the existence of another being. In order for a pig to be killed, it must first be found. The hassle of a search can be avoided by substituting the pig with a human. It is almost inevitable that the boys gratify their lust with human blood, perhaps with the blood of a littlun. The game is a horrifying example of how evil humanity can be. The dark side of human nature thinks nothing of killing a friend. We are shocked by Ralphs longing to cause pain, Jacks desire to stab Robert with his knife and Roger fighting to get close. But the thing that frightens us the most is the fact that this is not a figment of Goldings imagination, Ralph, Jack and the other islanders are not irrelevant fiction, for human kind is capable of great evil. I feel that the passage in the book is disturbing because it shows us how horrifyingly able we are to be unfeeling and cruel.
The Changing world of Work Project Essay 1. Explain the different ways the length of time people stayed in their jobs have changed today since the time of my grandparents. In todays fast-pace society, one is constantly having to change, especially with regard to the jobs one has and the careers one may pursue. The Jobs for life idea is long gone. My grandparents probably started work for one company when they were aged around 15-16, and they would have been more likely to stay with the same company for the rest of their life until they retired. The majority of people, back in the day, tended to stay in one job. They may have progresses in the company (e.g. from assistant manager to manager to managing director). They would have never even thought about the possibility of changing their job, unless they were forced to do so (if they got fired for example). It is presumed that in a persons average working life, they will not change jobs several times, but will also change their line of career. Nowadays, there is no guarantee that one may have a job for life, so it is important for the working people in todays society to be prepared for change due to various factors which could be brought up. 2. Task 18.1:- Smith Brothers is a very traditional firm that makes garden furniture by hand. This furniture sells well locally and is always in demand. Over the last year, there has been an increase in the number of people buying garden furniture, especially of the wooden type. The brothers have a big decision to make, do they expand their business and create more jobs for people or modernise the company and bring in technology and let the computers make the furniture? The proposal has created a hostile reaction from the workers. List the reasons for and against Smith Brothers changing their method of production of garden furniture. [Concentrate on the good and bad points of using computers in the production process]. 1. Good points of using computers in the production business:- * More accurate measurements in making the furniture. * Less human error due to the use of computers. * Stronger fixtures as computers are being used. * Cut back on unnecessary costs e.g. employees wages. * Cut back on loss of time, as computers can be working for almost all of the day e.g. 19 hours a day. Whereas humans cant be working for that long. 2. Bad Points of using computers in the production business:- * The degree of flexibility required by an employee in order to get a job will increase if more computers are used. * Although, the Smith Brothers will be making cuts in the initial number of employees (replaced by computers) they will have to employ technicians to ensure that their computers are working constantly. * If something serious happens to a computer, the whole system may be disrupted, thus delaying production of the furniture. * If the measurement in the prototype goes wrong, then the computers will automatically continue to make the wrong products, thus increasing the time needed for production, wasting resources, money and materials. * Dealing with computers/machines may require a certain amount of training, especially in the production process, knowing when to push which switch etc. therefore, this will take time and may cost money in order to train the employees to know how to make them work. WEEK 2 1. Task 18.2:- You have been given the task of trying to change the attitude of the people that work with you, with regard to training as they feel it is not worth it. Give your reasons and examples as to why you think they should change their attitude. Change is a natural aspect to growing life and will continue to happen as technology becomes more dominant. In order to remain successful, it is essential that companies constantly train and educate their employees. Modern companies should aim to ensure that all have an underlining net of skills and eventually, has the skills that are required to perform a certain number of tasks. This will make the employee or trainee more demanding to other potential employers. Although training involves time and money, the time and money does pay off in relation to the employee. For example, if the employer training the employee trains them up really hard, then that employee would be able to get a potentially better job with another employer. When the new employer trains that employee up again, then that employee can once again go off and get a better job with more pay. This cycle will continue, provided that the employee stays in a similar field of work as marketing skills may not be required for administration tasks. Training will also improve the performance and efficiency of employees in general as well as training unskilled workers. Training also reduces the need for supervision and provides greater opportunities for the staff or employees. Individual employees being trained would find that due to their training, there would be a reduction in the number of accidents in the workplace, and they would be less likely to make mistakes. Their pay would increase too and they could gain a promotion to another job, if not change jobs to a better company all together. 2. Task 18.6:- Delta Homes plc, a property developer, has a Personnel Department. Much of the work of this department involves recruiting construction workers on temporary contracts. a) Explain ONE reason why Delta Homes plc employs workers on temporary contracts. [2 Marks] Delta Homes plc employs workers on temporary contracts because they are unable to provide permanent contracts, therefore, temporary contracts which allows the hiring and/or firing of employees to suit the business cycle of the company can be put forward. b) Explain TWO problems for Delta Homes plc that might arise from employing workers on temporary contracts. [6 Marks] Two potential problems that Delta Homes plc may face due to these temporary contracts:- * Is the fact that the job security, which is considered by many people to be very important, disintegrates. Job security is very important because it provides stability and can lead to high motivation. Many employees would like to know that when they come to work tomorrow, they will still have their job to go to and continue to receive income. The idea of temporary contacts is worrying for many people, especially the employees who have families to support and also have the responsibility of providing for them. They want to know that when they take out a load for five years or longer, they will still have a job, enabling them to meet the monthly payments. * Similarly, in mortgage companies, if one of these Delta homes plc temporary employees decide to purchase a home, then the company would want to know if they have a secure job which will enable them to make the payments and if they are employed for more than 1 1/2 years or so. Therefore, many of Delta Homes plcs employees will have a hard time trying to find a mortgage for their home purchase because they may not be employed for long or may get fired any day. WEEK 3 Task 18.7:- An increasing number of employees work from home and keep in contact with the office using a computer and a modem. Write a report on the effects this way of working might have on the employee and the implications for the employer. (Concentrate on any good and bad points for the employer and the employee who might be working from home). Good Points for the employer and the employee who might be working from home:- * There is no need for travelling to work everyday and during rush hours. Both the employer and employee benefit from this because the employer wont need to be accountable for the employees late arrival into work. * Computers stationed at home anywhere in the country can be linked to a company and employers do not have to rely on local labour to fulfil the workforce. The employee gets to work at home just as if they were in their office, due to the system link-up. Saves time and hassle of using USB storage devices or floppy disks to transfer files and data/information between office and work. Also, when the employer wants a report in, then the employee working from home can just email it to the employers office email address so there is no need to travel to meet a deadline. * Working from home allows the employee to be flexible, so working when they have the time to and are available. For example, a mother of three children could work after normal office hours (at home) when the children are asleep or are distracted. Also, if her children are ill, she need not get a nanny or child-minder to look after them, she can put her work on hold for a while and look after the children herself. Due to this, she doesnt need to take time off work. * The employer does not need to provide the employee the premises to work, as they can do it at home due to the computer system link. This way, the employer can cut down on costs for the company, e.g. the food they pay for in order to feed their employees, the cost of building extensions to the main office building, the additional cost of the electricity and gas bills. Also, employers can use labour in areas of high unemployment so, can reduce the salaries they pay cut back on costs. Bad Points for the employer and the employee who might be working from home:- * The employee may not be able to work at home unsupervised, due to lack of concentration, thereby not finishing reports and missing deadline dates. * The employer does not know whether the employee is working or taking an early holiday. They wont have any say on the hours that the employee puts into their work. * If the employee works overtime, then the exact hours overtime may not be known because there was no witness. So, employee may lose out on the overtime pay. * If there is a system link failure with the computer, then the employee will be stuck and may lose all of their work. Also, lose time on working on the report/project. WEEK 4 1. What does flexible working mean? Flexible working is when the employee is required to come into work and do a job with out much notice. They have to be able to keep their schedules open when it comes to work. A bit like a doctor who is on call he doesnt know when a casualty will come in; therefore, he has to be available if something happens. 2. Why do more companies require their employees to have flexible working? More companies require their employees to have flexible working because many of them require their facilities to be functioning 24/7/365 24 hours a day. They cannot afford to let their equipment remain idle for long periods of the day. 3. Why is flexible working of great importance for companies whose employees work with computers? A person/employee who repairs or mends computers would have to be flexible because they will wait for a telephone call or message to say they are needed to repair a machine. This call could come during the evening, at weekends or even at bank holidays whenever the computer breaks down. The company could not afford to let the computers stand idle for great periods of time, mainly because we have come to rely on them so much. If a machine is not working, then it is costing the company money and hindering somebodys work. WEEK 5 1. Why do companies spend a lot of time in making sure the computers they are going to buy are the correct ones? Computer equipment is very expensive to buy. If one buys a computer it is often said to be out of date immediately after one has bought it. Something new has already been introduced, which is better and more powerful than the original one purchased. This is because computers are continually being updated; therefore, the pace of change is very fast. Therefore, companies will spend a great deal of time and energy in making sure that the computers they purchase are the correct ones for the job that needs to be done. 2. Why is it important that a technician makes sure all computers are working all the time? It is important that a technician makes sure all computers are working all the time because if they stand idle, they are losing the company money. This is why companies employ technicians to ensure that the computers are functioning and working properly without any problems. 3. Why is it important that companies are always looking to update their computers? Companies will always need to update their machines because we live in a fast-changing world and they need to be able to keep up with the pace. If they do not update, then they could become uncompetitive and would not be able to produce the same results in the given time. This could lead to more unemployment in the company. WEEK 6 1. How has the use of email helped reduced waste? The use of email has reduced the amount of paper that is used in the world, which in turn has reduced the number of trees hat need to be cut down to produce the paper. Also, the energy used to cut down the trees has also been saved, which could have an effect on global warming. This has become of great concern to business, the government and the public in recent years. 2. How has the use of computers reduced waste in industrial processes (making products)? Computers have reduced waste in industrial processes by guaranteeing that each batch of products or materials that will be made would be to the same quality as the last and the one before that. This is due to the decrease in human error. This cuts down on the amount of resources used in the process. 3. What is and why is recycling important in society? Recycling is the re-use or sustainable use of products e.g. paper, glass and steel cans. Recycling is important in society because the huge amount of litter that has been created through the disposal of throw-away materials. These throw-away materials are disposed of in land-fill sites around the world. Eventually, and slowly, we will run out of land-fill sites and so where will the waste go? This can be stopped by preventing the production of such throw-away materials and the promoting or the production of recyclable materials.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
The Structure Of The Supermarket Industry Economics Essay This assignment will provide a critical analysis of how a Multinational Enterprise Operates domestically but have foreign ownership by looking at how it creates value, analyzing the industry structure in which it operates and the strategies that it uses within that Industry. As the local markets throughout the world are being deregulated and liberalized foreign firms are looking to locate part of the production process in other countries where there are cost advantages. These might be cheaper sources of labor, raw materials and components or have preferential government regulation. 1.1 Foreign Ownership: Shoprite brand is South Africas largest food retailing which comprises 309 Shoprite outlets. Shoprite goes as back to 1997, started as a small chain of supermarkets. Today Shoprite has managed to increase its operation outside South Africa from one store in Lusaka, Zambia in 1995, to 71 stores in 16 countries, Tanzania being among those countries that Shoprite has its operations. In December 2001 the first Shoprite store in Tanzania was opened at Pugu Road giving a wide range of quality products at affordable prices. Currently Shoprite have four stores in Tanzania, Mlimani City in Mlimani Mall in Dar es Salaam kilombero in Arusha, Pugu Road and Mayfair Plaza in Dar es Salaam. With a wide range of products and at lower prices, always Shoprite has attracted many customers over the years. 2.0 Analysis of an Industry Structure: 2.1The Industry Examining the Supermarket industry through Porters 5 forces (as shown below) shows that the Supermarket industry is intensely competitive, particularly in the low price segment, this competitiveness results from a high bargaining power of consumers, meaning they are able to shop around and switch at no cost . Despite high capital requirements, the threat of entry from new competitors is high in the supermarket industry, with new planned entrants in the future years. 2.2Threat of Substitutes- over all threat Medium as industry is susceptible to changes in the economy/income. More people choosing to go to markets and purchase their needs. Generic substitution- Disposable income spent elsewhere, if economy enters a recession consumers are likely to spend money elsewhere ( small shops rather than in Malls and supermarkets) 2.3 Bargaining power of suppliers- overall supplier power is Low/Medium and changes with the external environment. Food Producers have high cost of production and supermarket can easily take the advantage of this during a fall. Large numbers of food producers -Supermarket owners are likely to find the cost of switching to other producer cheaply. 2.4 Bargaining power of consumers overall consumer power is Medium/High Consumers can shop around as there are many supermarkets in markets Low switching costs for consumers- doesnt cost anything to buy products from Game instead of Shoprite. Creation of comparison window shopping, advertisement where consumers will easily be able to compare products prices and just pick the lowest price. 3.0 Threat of Entry from New Competitors It is not only current rivals that pose a threat to firms in an industry; the possibilities that the new firms may inter the industry also affect the competition. Any firm should be able to enter and exit a market and if free entry and exit exists, then profits always should be normal. The capital requirement to enter the industry is high Many supermarkets planned to be opened in the future. Differentiation: There is no gap in the market- already many existing supermarket. Expected retaliation is high from existing Supermarket, could drop prices to squeeze out new entrants, as demonstrated with Nakumatt 3.1 Competitive Rivalry- HIGH High threat of substitutes Competitors are in balance There are high fixed costs There is no differentiation in the industry 4.0 External Analysis Through analyzing the external environment is easy to understand the industry and make strategic decisions. The purpose of Shoprite external analysis is to understand what may affect the future of the company as a whole. Pastel Analysis: 4.1 Political: these refer to government policy such as the degree of intervention in the economy. In the last five years the government of Tanzania has been amending its foreign policies by providing conducive environment to encourage multinational companies and investor to invest in Tanzania. This is an opportunity for Shoprite since there is going to be free movement of labor, goods, within the east Africa countries. 4.2 Technology: New technologies create new products and new processes. Technology is fast growing in Tanzania such as introduction of ATMs, increase in number of telecommunication companies, with recently introduction of Fiber Optic internet which will give more access of information to individual people. This is opportunity to Shoprite to use the advantage of internet, radio, and magazine to market its products. For examples in last ten years there were few ATMs which bores many customers and businesspersons, because they had to make a huge line into banks for them to do transactions but now is not the same people are more reliable using ATMs which facilitates transaction. Also Telecommunication companies have introduced new technology of money transfer such as M Pesa and Zap which give easy movement of money. On line shopping, and computer aided design are all improvement s to the way the business is done as the result of technology. Through technology Shoprite can reduce costs an d encourage innovation. These developments can benefit consumers as well as the organization produce the products. 4.3 Economical These include interest rates, taxation changes, economic growth, inflation and exchange rates. The increase of fuel cost can result into high cost of production hence affects the price of product to final consumers. The global economic crisis can have a huge impact to Shoprite as multinational company in its operation likewise to demand of individual is ultimately to be affected. 5.0 Internal Analysis To understand a successful of Shoprite, the internal strategic capabilities must be understood. This section will focus on identifying the key internal strengths and weaknesses (from SWOT). This will be achieved by examining the resources and competencies for Shoprite, applying the VRIO model to these resources and looking at the performance of various business functions within the organization. An organizations resources can be Physical, Reputation, Organization, Financial, Intellectual and Technological (Johnson et al, 2004) the below analysis shows the full extent of Shoprite resources and capabilities and only the key factors will be drawn upon here. Although Shoprite has very strong branding and recognition across Africa, it does not necessarily mean that they have a good reputation or good customer relations. It is one of the low price profit making in the supermarket industry yet they have a bad reputation for not purchasing local commodities and have bad relationship with local farmers who produce vegetables. Most clients complain much on how Shoprite operates, they feel the company just takes their money and have nothing in return to society. As referred to earlier, Shoprite has a very simple, yet effective organizational set up based on the low cost strategy which the owners feel is key to Shoprite success. 5.1 Key factors of this strategy are: Improve distribution over the past 12years, Shoprite has expanded its thrust northward beyond South Africa borders. Currently, 198 corporate outlets serve consumers in 16 countries outside of South Africa (fastmoving, 2009). By open more outlets allows Shoprite to widen market share which increase company profit. By using differentiation strategy Shoprite have been able to segment its customer in different categories. Shoprite is composed of the group checkers, checkers hipper, Ushoprite save, House and home, Ok furniture and Ok franchise Division , for example Shoprite focuses on customers from the middle to lower-income consumers in the living standards measurement 3to8. Low prices this has attracted a large group of customers who their purchasing power is low. 6.0 SWOT ANALYSIS 6.1 Strengths and Weaknesses The key strengths identified from Shoprites internal operations are their stable financial position, good branding, a responsive organizational structure, a strong management team and strong distribution operation. With the strong financial, good branding and strong management has been a motivation for the company growth. Currently Shoprite has 382 operation stores across Africa and one in India. The group continued to extend merchandise ranges upward to cater for a broadening middle class, while retaining the full selection of staple products (Annual report Shoprite). Despite the current depressed economic environment Shoprite is looking five years ahead in planning for growth, intends opening 23 stores in the 2010 financial year. The main weaknesses are its bad reputation for not purchasing local commodities/ products and bad relationship with the local farmers and individuals. Shoprite is taking advantage of its strength (low price strategy) and key competencies (strong brand) to sustain a competitive advantage. The Shoprite (and management team) may not have the best reputation in the industry but does this matter? Shoprite has been extremely successful financially and look set to continue this success in the future, high profit and keeping costs low is the strategy that they are successfully achieving. 6.2 Opportunities and Threats After examining the Strength and weakness it can be seen that there area a variety of factors that need to be taken to the consideration. Shoprite has already taken advantage of key opportunity buy branding and positioning itself as the first Multinational Retailing in Tanzania. After Government provide good business environment such as laying of goods regulations many foreign investor have been interested to invest in Tanzania this can be a threat to Shoprite. Also by introduction of the many banks in Tanzania that has enabled many local entrepreneurs to get loans and open mini supermarket in small towns which is the big threat since more people will be motivated to go those stores and that can reduce Shoprite market share. The key opportunity identified in this market are the increased target market from EAC (East Africa Community ) expansion previously there were only three country but now there five countries where Sudan in the process of the joining the community . Since there w ill be free movement of people within the membership countries hence will increase demand. Shoprite have already taken advantage of internet expansion and this will provide further opportunities ad the internet expansion (introduction of Fiber Optic) that allow online Shopping ( E commerce ) . 6.3 VRIO: A model which allows insight into whether the organizations resources and capabilities translate to the potential for sustained competitive advantage (Johnson et al) Value Rareness Imitability Organization Physical Yes Yes No Yes Reputation Yes No Yes Yes Organization Yes No Yes Yes Financial Yes Yes No Yes Intellectual Yes Yes Yes Yes Technology Yes No Yes Yes 7.0 Key Competencies: Good brand awareness-Shoprite has a strong presence in the public eye which has increase awareness its brand across Africa. Likely in Tanzania Shoprite has large market share because it was the first large Supermarket to be opened. Organizational Structure-Through jointure and opening of many branches and using low price strategy has helped Shoprite to satisfy customer needs. Advance Technology-All Shoprite supermarkets, wherever they are` located, are now equipped with the latest scanning equipment and linked directly to the groups main compture centre. This direct access has great improved stock control and replenishment and using the sales analysis provided enabled store management to monitor closely consume acceptance of product not previously available in a particular outlet. Financial Stability-Despite the groble Economic recession the company total turnover has grown to 20.9%. It benefited from the employment created by the mega infrastructural projects being under taken with a view to the 2010 FIFA world cup in South Africa and the increase in the number and size of social grants. 8.0 The Economic Impact of the MNE Mnes may affect many aspects of countrys economy -balance of payments, growth, employment objectives, and so forth. Under different conditions, these effects may be positive or negative, either for the host country or the home country. In addition, potential gains to host countries go up as local environments become more attractive for FDI. 8.1 BALANCE -OF PAYMENTS EFFECTS Why will Tanzania wants capital inflows? Because such inflows give the country the foreign exchange it needs to import goods and service and to pay off foreign debt. Keep in mind that FDI brings both capital inflows and capital out flows. For the government will be much concerned about the net balance of payment effect and about the possibility that when the books are ultimately balanced, the effect of their net balance of payments may be negative. Lets see what Tanzania will benefit from MNEs. A MNE investment in country may result in a significant injection into the economy of the country. This may provide jobs directly of through the growth of local subsidiary business such as banks, insurance. It may be initiate a multiplier process generating more income as newly employed workers spend their wages on consumption. MNEs May provide training and education for employees thus creating higher skilled labor force. These skills may be transferred to other areas of the country. Often management and entrepreneurial skills learned from MNEs are an important source of human capital. MNE contributes tax revenue to the government and other revenue s if they purchase existing national assets. 9.0 The Problems of Multinational Enterprises The MNE may employ largely expatriate managers ensuring that incomes generated are maintained within a relatively small group of people. The attraction for the MNE may be the large supply of cheap manual labour who they can employ at low wages. This may contribute to a widening of the income distribution. It will also not lead to the transfer of management skills. MNE investment in LDCs often involves the use of capital intensive production methods. Given that many LDCs are often endowed with potentially large low wage labout forces and have high level of unemployment this might be considered inappropriate technology. More labour intensive production methods might be a more appropriate option for alleviating poverty and aiding development. Any resulting growth might be considered anti-developmental. MNEs engage in transfer pricing where they shift production between countries so as to benefit from lower tax arrangements in certain countries. By doing this they can minimize their tax burden and the tax revenue of national governments. As many MNEs are very large and have considerable power they can next influence on governments to gain preferential tax concessions and subsidies and grants. Outward oriented economists maintain that the cycles of poverty will not be broken from within the domestic economy. The level of investment needed to raise productivity and incomes is not possible .Thus foreign direct investment through the MNE activity is essential. By investing in areas and utilizing the factors of production where the LDCs have an absolute and comparative advantage MNEs will lead to a more efficient allocation of the worlds resources. However if this leads to overspecialization and overdependence in certain sectors of the economy then the host country will vulnerable especially if the MNE decides for commercial reasons to leave the country in the future. 10.0 Action Plan for Implementation Planning is indispensable for a company, not too ensure that they stick to plan put to know when they are deviating from it. Shoprite would need to develop a board that will deal with improving the relationship with the local communities. It would be advisable Shoprite reduce importing of vegetable from South Africa instead buy form local farmers this will reduce cost of production since all goods will be locally production hence enable to lower price. The key changes for Shoprites business functions in implementing this strategy would be for the production department as the majority of others aspects will be handles by the service provider. 11.0 Conclusion MNEs play a major role in the country economy development, whoever the government should be more careful with the MNEs by putting laws that will guide them. Same time government should this opportunity as the key for developing the local industries and businesses which will increase government revenue, hence high Growth Domestic Production (GDP).
Saturday, July 20, 2019
In the console-gaming world people know Sony and Nintendo. Microsoft may be the largest and richest software company in the world, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s unknown when it comes to console gaming. Microsoft is counting on the Xbox to change that perception. Gamers may not be willing to take a chance with the Microsoft Xbox, even if it is far superior to any console ever made. Nintendo Gamecube is nothing if charismatic. NintendoÃ¢â¬â¢s new machine is half the size of any other console and looks like a toy with its brightly colored plastic shell and handle. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s destined to be home of such popular games as Mario, Donkey Kong, Pikachu, and Kirby. Nintendo Gamecube seems mismatched as it goes up against the Microsoft Xbox and the Sony Playstation 2 (a multimedia mayhem that Sony says itÃ¢â¬â¢s supposed to be Ã¢â¬Å"The Future Of EntertainmentÃ¢â¬ ). All this makes you think; what makes Nintendo believe it can possibly go up against the ultra-sophisticated Xbox. The Microsoft Xbox has powerful components within that overpower any other console, including its CPU or itÃ¢â¬â¢s Central Processing Unit. The Xbox runs an Intel Pentium III 733-megahertz (MHz) processor. This is a lot more powerful than Nintendo GamecubeÃ¢â¬â¢s IBM Power PC 485-megahertz Gekko chip processor and even lower the Sony Playstation 2Ã¢â¬â¢s 128 bit Ã¢â¬Å"Emotion EngineÃ¢â¬ which is clocked around 294-megahertz. A few more components that make this console far superior to any other is its graphics processor, or GPU, which stands for Graphic Processing Unit. Microsoft had teamed up with Nvidia to create a chip that was made especially for the Xbox. The computer-based company Ã¢â¬Ës 250-megahertz chip gives the console an amazing resolution of 1920x1080 pixels and 125 Million Polygons per Second. Sixty four- (64) megabytes (Mb) of DDRam back all this up, for great non-glitch games and smooth running. Nintendo also has a computer-based company teaming up with th em to create the 162-megahertz ATI Flipper GPU Chip. This chip can only handle around 6-12 Million polygons a second and is only backed up by 43-megabytes of DDRam. Another feature that is a first in the console industry is XboxÃ¢â¬â¢s internal 8-Gigabyte (Gb) Hard-Drive or Hard Disk Drive (Hdd). This contributes too much of XboxÃ¢â¬â¢s weight, but gives many features. With this you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a need for a memory card to save your game files, you save them right to the hard-drive. This is a very nice feature on the Xbox, because it saves you money.
Friday, July 19, 2019
The Schlieffen Plan was devised by Count Alfred von Schlieffen, the Chief of the General Staff in the German army in 1905. There were a number of different aspects to the Schlieffen Plan, and all were aimed at defeating France as quickly as possible, preferably in under 6 weeks. The Germans believed this was possible because they had defeated France in Alsace and Lorraine in the 1871. The main aim of the Schlieffen Plan was to knock out and capture France and then attack Russia in order to avoid fighting a war on two fronts at the same time. Ã¢â¬ ¨The second aspect to the Schlieffen Plan was to invade neutral Belgium as a means to get to France, because the German-Franco border was heavily fortified and would mean almost certain defeat for Germany. Even though the Germans knew about the Treaty of London signed between Britain and Belgium in 1839, Kaiser Wilhelm II did not believe that Britain would come to BelgiumÃ¢â¬â¢s aid over Ã¢â¬Å"a scrappy bit of paperÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬ ¨ The third aspect to the Plan was to use the 1st to 4th armies to go through Belgium and Holland to outflank the French and attack them from behind at Lorraine where the German 5th to 8th armies were holding, attack from the French forces and even give them a little ground to allow the Germans to get behind the French. In the process the Germans would be able to take Paris, the capital as they moved south to join the 5th to 8th armies in Lorraine. The whole of the Schlieffen Plan depended on adhering to a strict timetable, which in theory was a good idea on behalf of the German staff, but in reality it did not take into consideration factors such as soldiers fatigue in marching long distances and unexpected resistance by the British Expeditionary Force at the and the Belgia... ...e Germans arrived in France, the French were ready waiting to repel them. In conclusion, the main aim of the Schlieffen Plan was for Germany to avoid fighting a war on two fronts at the same time. The Plan failed for a number of reasons, but the most important was the unexpected resistance put up by the brave Belgians at Mons and the support given by the BEF at the Battle of the Marne. This meant that von Moltke had to divert his armies from encircling Paris, dig trenches to protect his soldiers from the bombardment form the new artillery, and thereby negate the crux of the Schlieffen Plan, which had depended on speed, knocking out and capturing Paris in six weeks. The Germans found themselves stuck in France while the Russians had mobilized: The Germans then had to fight a war on two fronts - the very situation which the Schlieffen Plan had been devised to avoid. The Schlieffen Plan Essay -- World War II WWII WW2 Nazi Germany The Schlieffen Plan was devised by Count Alfred von Schlieffen, the Chief of the General Staff in the German army in 1905. There were a number of different aspects to the Schlieffen Plan, and all were aimed at defeating France as quickly as possible, preferably in under 6 weeks. The Germans believed this was possible because they had defeated France in Alsace and Lorraine in the 1871. The main aim of the Schlieffen Plan was to knock out and capture France and then attack Russia in order to avoid fighting a war on two fronts at the same time. Ã¢â¬ ¨The second aspect to the Schlieffen Plan was to invade neutral Belgium as a means to get to France, because the German-Franco border was heavily fortified and would mean almost certain defeat for Germany. Even though the Germans knew about the Treaty of London signed between Britain and Belgium in 1839, Kaiser Wilhelm II did not believe that Britain would come to BelgiumÃ¢â¬â¢s aid over Ã¢â¬Å"a scrappy bit of paperÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬ ¨ The third aspect to the Plan was to use the 1st to 4th armies to go through Belgium and Holland to outflank the French and attack them from behind at Lorraine where the German 5th to 8th armies were holding, attack from the French forces and even give them a little ground to allow the Germans to get behind the French. In the process the Germans would be able to take Paris, the capital as they moved south to join the 5th to 8th armies in Lorraine. The whole of the Schlieffen Plan depended on adhering to a strict timetable, which in theory was a good idea on behalf of the German staff, but in reality it did not take into consideration factors such as soldiers fatigue in marching long distances and unexpected resistance by the British Expeditionary Force at the and the Belgia... ...e Germans arrived in France, the French were ready waiting to repel them. In conclusion, the main aim of the Schlieffen Plan was for Germany to avoid fighting a war on two fronts at the same time. The Plan failed for a number of reasons, but the most important was the unexpected resistance put up by the brave Belgians at Mons and the support given by the BEF at the Battle of the Marne. This meant that von Moltke had to divert his armies from encircling Paris, dig trenches to protect his soldiers from the bombardment form the new artillery, and thereby negate the crux of the Schlieffen Plan, which had depended on speed, knocking out and capturing Paris in six weeks. The Germans found themselves stuck in France while the Russians had mobilized: The Germans then had to fight a war on two fronts - the very situation which the Schlieffen Plan had been devised to avoid.
Antigone Medea has just killed four people which are Creon the king of Corinth, the princess whom Jason is in love with, and her two little children. Jason then prays to gods, especially Zeus, father of all gods, to punish Medea for her crimes. From the context of the quote, the chorus is addressing the audience about the unexpected and unbelievable end of the play. Medea then gets away to Athens with a chariot lent to her by Helios, the sun god and her grandfather. Euripides always uses this kind of conclusion to end most of his works. Euripides suggests that the general theme of the quote is gods are not like what we think they are supposed to be. In other words, we can not expect much from the gods. Instead, we have to handle our matters on our own. The phrase, "Many are the Fates which Zeus in Olympus dispenses," tells us that gods do not favor mortal people. Even if gods do help mortals, that's only because those mortals have some kind of relationship with the gods. So, Euripides tells this story not in favor of the gods. The general thems is gods are not as good as they are supposed to be. Medea has been exiled for three times: from her home country near the Black Sea, from Jason's homeland Iolchos, and now from the city of Corinth. We would naturally think that a woman like Medea, being exiled for many times, is the most vulnerable and most powerless woman. She has got no friend and no citizenship. At the time of Euripides, being an exile is not an interesting position that a person wants to be in. It is like a suicide. Most people at that time in Greece view strangers as barbarians with no intelligence at all. In addition, Medea is going to be an exile with two children. She is supposed to be in lots of trouble. On the other hand, Jason has won the princess of Corinth's love. He is going to be Creon's son-in-law. Jason abandon's Medea after all she has done for him. Jason doesn't fear Medea at all because he has support from Creon, king of Corinth. Jason is supposed to be more powerful than Medea. Jason is the son-in-law of the king and Medea is an exile. But, as Eur ipides suggests, what the audience expects doesn't come true at all.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Conflicts management in work place OVERVIEW The purpose of this assignment is to critically analyze the conflicts in working place and try to understand organization behavior with respect to conflict effect. I also try to focus whether conflict is necessary or not by using range of theoretical perspectives and ideologies of conflict. INTRODUCTION: Conflicts are unpleasant, but it is a kind of force that ruling almost every aspect of our life. As time passes in every working relationship it is common to produce conflict (John Newstrom 2007, p. 253). Conflict can arise from various sources and directions but it can emerge in short duration of time among people of any level, and it may require proper management. Conflict can be constructive or destructive depending on ability of management. Hence managers should be aware of it and must know when and how to stimulate conflict in better way to resolve from it in time. Conflict is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"[.. a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something the first party cares aboutÃ¢â¬ (Huczynski & Buchanan 2007, p. 661). Every organization has some sets of rules for its existence and to stay competent in the market and its survival as they desired. For this organization should be stable, always integrated, well coordinated, order and unanimity. As we know that organization is a place where peo ple work together to achieve a common goal. But to attain the goal everyone has to struggle, cooperate, obey rules, and always communicate with each other to complete the given task in time. But history shows that many organization fallen because of these interpersonal relationships of the people are not productive, cooperative, and satisfying which directly effects the reputation of the organization and creates a big problem for its growth. Many people believe that organization is interfered with conflicts and many other factors such as disintegration, antagonism, frequent changes, and divided loyalties. But it is also seen that people believe conflicts are necessary to perform organization effectively. Let have a close look on conflict in organization and people point of view: WHY CONFLICT ARISE? In any situation conflict can arise between two or more parties when they think opposite and feel themselves in opposition. Conflict can arise due to many factors. For example: To achieve the goal in time different people apply different methods and techniques, but some time because of disagreement among the people due to different experience can produce the conflict. It is an interpersonal process; Ã¢â¬Å"conflicts also arise due to tack inter-dependence, policies, ambiguity of roles and rules, personality differences, ineffective communication, the competition over scarce resources, and underlying differences in attitudes, beliefs, and experiencesÃ¢â¬ (Huczynski & Buchanan 2007, p. 661). Conflict can be functional or dysfunctional; we can consider it constructive or destructive depending on its management. But important question is whether conflict is necessary or not for any organization? Levels of Conflict: In any working place conflict can be possible to occur within an employee, between individuals or groups, and across organizations as they compete. Sources of Conflict: Organizational change, Different sets of values, Threats to status, Contrasting perceptions, Lack of trust, personality clashes, and personality differences. IS CONFLICT NECESSARY EVIL OR NOT: From many decades, there has much debate that concerning whether conflict within the organization is necessary or not. Dean Tjosvold (2008) argued that conflict was inevitable aspect of all organizations; that properly conducted; it lead to a better understanding between individuals, as well as to better ways of working. Since conflict was essential to successful teamwork and organizational effectiveness, it should be welcomed and managed appropriately. In contrast, Carten De Dreu (2008) stated that conflict was always detrimental, and that the research support for the beneficial aspects of workplace conflict was weak. He said that conflict was beneficial in only a very few, specific situations; and that even in thes, it had negative consequences which outweighted the positive ones. He felt that organizations had to make efforts to manage conflict, not because it had positive effects but so as to minimize its negative onesÃ¢â¬ (BUCHANAN AND HUCZYNSKI, 2010). THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES OF CONFLICT: According to traditional perceptive conflicts are negative and indicates something is wrong. It must be avoided or eliminate. The contemporary perspective describes conflict as inevitable. It describes that if conflicts are very high or low they have negative consequences which affect the performance of the organization. CONTRASTING VIEWS OF CONFLICT: It is found that there are three views of conflict: positive, negative and Ã¢â¬ËbalancedÃ¢â¬â¢. Positive view: This view consider conflict are positive in organizations, but if it is managed and Considered can be positive and they believe that if the conflict managed and resolution effectively many time we can see constructive outcomes. This helps them to think how they can adopt different process to do things and conflict resolution process is many time seen a stimulus for positive change in the organization. This view tells resolving conflict also help to adapt to changes and it is seen more acceptable (Coiser & Dalton, 1990). Conflict help in decision making process; because it is nature and people have different opinions, thoughts, attitudes and values for any given situation which can be beneficial in making and choosing better idea and decision. ositive view of conflict help us to encourage to work in difference and it tell positive outcomes of conflicts are very beneficial to the organization, it may increase quality of work and personal satisfaction and also increases commitment and motivation to complete the task in time. Negative view: This view considers conflict as negative, it tells that conflict is dangerous and have serious negative effects and may diverts organization goals to achieve and also effect on out psychological wellbeing. This view express that conflict also affect ideas, created tension, increases stress and anxiety. And conflict may be detrimental to individual and group development over period of time. (Baron, R. A. and Richardson, S. R. , Human Aggression, 2nd edition (Plenum Press, New York, 1991). ) Ã¢â¬ËBalancedÃ¢â¬â¢ view: This view of conflict some time preferable from a managerial perspective. In this approach sometime conflict are destructive and some time they are highly desirable and constructive. But managing conflict is essential for attaining the goal for any manager. TRANSITIONS IN CONFLICT THOUGHT: Organization conflict has different definitions and perspectives from many years. One thought of school argued that, conflict must be avoided in order to run the organization effectively, without any malfunctioning within it. This thought called traditional view. Another thought of school argued that conflicts in any organization are natural and inevitable. According to this view conflict is not a evil, but it tells that management should have the ability for improving organizational effectiveness and efficiency. We called this thought behavioral view. Third thought is interactionist approach and it is most recent perspective. This thought of school argues that conflicts are positive and important for any organization. It tells that conflicts are absolutely necessary for improving organization effectiveness and efficiency. (Adapted from: Stephen R. Robbins, Managing Organization Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : Prentice-Hall, 1974). ) THE TRADITIONAL VIEW: In this view, it is assumed that conflict is natural and very bad, it should be avoided and eliminate immediately. There will be always negative impact on organizational performance. And it is believed that organization cannot perform effectively, if the conflicts are not eliminated in time. According to this approach conflicts are harmful and must be avoided. Conflicts can cause violence, destruction, and some time irrationality problems. It is manager responsibility to identify the conflicts if any and try to eliminate it to get rid of problems. This traditional perspective prevailed the management and organizational lit during the late nineteenth century and continued to be mid Ã¢â¬â 1940s. The Behavioral View: In this behavioral view traditional approach was followed and it is argued that occurrence of conflicts are natural in organizations. But behavioralists argued that conflicts are inevitable they advocated accepting the conflict. The behavioral view explains that conflict cannot be eliminated and they believe that conflict may benefit organization performance. They believe conflicts are inevitable and must resolve in time. The view prevailed management and organization from the late 1940s through the mid-1970s. The Interactionist View: It is the current theoretical perspective on conflict, this approach encourages conflict and they believe that conflict is positive for any organization. In interactionists approach believe that conflict can help to make new ideas, improve intra group cohesiveness, because of different opinion and different experience it help in making better decision in time, and many benefits to the organization. Interactionists perspective encourage functional opposition and necessity of conflict for the effectiveness of the organization. In this view it not only focuses of conflict stimulation but also choose appropriate conflict resolution process by the management. And explains conflict management are the major responsibility for the managers. It is seen that many evidence suggests conflict is necessary and important in organization because it improves the quality of decision making. (Coiser & Schwenk, 1990). Thus I think the major problem is not conflict itself, but the problem is how to manage the conflict in the organization. So we can expect conflict may be result functional or dysfunctional and any one of them have serious effect to achieve the goal in time of any organization. This functional conflict is helpful to nurture the individuals in the working place to improve the creativity, adaption and innovation of the organization. (Thomas, K. W. Ã¢â¬ËConflict and conflict managementÃ¢â¬â¢, in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, ed. M. D. Dunnette (Rand McNally, Chicago, 1976). ) Because of complacency some organizations are failure, but can be traced back to too much harmony. (Robbins, S. P. , Essentials of Organizational Behavior (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1992). ) But in reality most organization try to eliminate any type of conflict because they think elimination of conflict solve the problem and perform organization effectively. But now we can see and argue that functional conflict should be encouraged and dysfunctional conflict should be discouraged. It has spent more than three decades by many researchers, scholar and behavioural scientist to analyze the affects of dysfunctional intergroup conflict in the people who experiences it(Sherif and Sherif, Groups in Harmony and Tension (Harper and Row, New York, 1953). ) -Within groups: it increases the group cohesiveness, able to emphasis on loyalty, rise in desired autocratic leadership and focus on activity; -Between groups: there will be distorted in perceptions, communication is not effective and some time negative stereotyping. View of Conflict can be better understood by different frame of references. Frame of reference: Ã¢â¬ It is describe as, a personÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions and interpretations of events, and involve assumptions about reality, attitudes towards what is possible, and conventions regarding correct behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Huczynski & Buchanan 2007, p. 661). Contrasting frames of reference: It is seen that literature distinguishes four different frames of reference for conflict, based on differentiation made by Alan Fox. They are unitarist, pluralist, interactionist and radical (Fox, 1966, 1973). All these frames are different from each other but important thing is that none of these are right or wrong. Unitarist: In unitarist frame conflict is seen badly and they think that organizations should be essentially harmonious. Pluralist: In pluralist frame sees that groups in organization have their own interests and organization is collection of groups. Interactionist: This interactionist frame sees conflict as a positive, necessary force for effective performance of any organization; Radical: In radical frame sees conflict as an inevitable outcome of capitalism in any organization. To better understand conflict one should view it as dynamic rather than a static concept and the sequence of conflict stages can be seen as latent, perceived, felt, manifest and after math. (Pondy, L. R. , Ã¢â¬ËOrganizational conflict: concept and modelsÃ¢â¬â¢, Administrative Science Quarterly, 12 (1967). ) Conflict is inevitable in organizational life and its results can be constructive rather than destructive depending up on how it is managed. If negative effects controlled and can be minimized then positive outcomes may result. Effective conflict management is based in part, on a solid understanding of the different ways that conflict emerges and can be resolved. (Anderson, H. and Kyprianou. 1994. Effective Organizational Behaviour. edn. Oxford: Blackwell ) EFFECTS OF CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATION Conflict in organization has some advantages and few disadvantages if it is not managed. In organization many participants think conflict should be avoided and they often see conflicts are always destructive and it should be eliminated. But in reality it is a limited view, because it is seen that all type of conflict are not destructive, some may result productive and some may nonproductive outcomes. But some participant views on conflicts is positive, they think conflict should be manage effectively and need to search the different ways to results the constructive outcome. Advantage: Conflict produces many benefits; first one, because of it people emotionally aroused with full potential to search and to find better approaches by comparing different approaches which may be useful for get better and desired results. It helps them to boost their creativity and improves their ability for developing new ideas. Thus helps them to experiment different way to achieve the goal. And second benefit is problem can be confronted and solved, so that conflict can be brought to the surface. Disadvantages: Conflict also produces disadvantages if it is not manages properly in time, and many leads to bad results. It also raises many problems like, people may focus on personal issues, they may not cooperate properly which increases stress and people may feel fear of defeating this directly reduces their confidence and motivation level. So it is very important to manage conflict in time. Manager should be aware of conflict and its outcomes and he should apply appropriate conflict resolution strategies, when they found conflict affecting to achieve the goal. Let us see some positive and negative outcome of conflict in working place: According to a survey, many practicing managers spend approximately 20 percent of their time to deal with conflict situation in working environment. Schmidt records some positive and negative outcomes of conflict. (NEWSTROM, W. 2007. Organizational Behaviour: Human Behavior at Work. 2Th edn. Singapore: McGraw-Hill/Irwin) Positive outcome include: ?Good generation of new ideas ?People try for different and new approaches ?Long-standing problems in any matter can be resolve ?Opportunities for individual views clarification ?It improves creativity and interest of participates ?It gives opportunities for individuals to test their abilities and capacities. Negative outcomes include: ?People fe el fear of defeating and demeaned manner ?Ineffective communication increases the distance between people ? Mistrust and suspicion among the people People concentrate on own interest rather than organization goal ? Reduction in cooperation which effect the teamwork ?And employee turnover increases. CONFLICT OUTCOMES: Conflict in organization may produce four possible outcomes depending on approaches chosen by participates involved. They are as follows: 1. lose-lose 2. Lose-win 3. Win-lose 4. Win-win ParticipantÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions and chosen strategies are the result of conflict outcomes. There are many different conflict resolution strategies developed in the history, but this different strategies designed for participate ntention. CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES: There are five possible conflict resolution strategies available, participant can select any strategy as he need and apply them to reduce/remove the conflict. By using appropriate strategy it is possible to achieve predict able outcome. These strategies are different from each other, they are basically representing different concerns for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own desired outcome and for anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s result. These five strategies are as follows: Avoiding- In this conflict is avoided physically and mentally, this approach expects less positive outcome and hence reflects a low concern for either partyÃ¢â¬â¢s outcomes. Thus it results in lose Ã¢â¬â lose situation. Smoothing- In this strategy depending on the other partyÃ¢â¬â¢s interests problems are accommodate. This strategy approach focuses on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own detriment by emphasizing on concerns for others which resulting in a lose-win outcome. Forcing- This strategy is depends on using power tactics to achieve the desired goal to win. It depends on authority and aggressiveness in order to attain personal goals at the expense of the concern for the other party. This type of strategy result in a win-lose situation. Compromising- This strategy help to compromise own desires and thought by giving up something to gain something else willingly. It results with no clear-cut outcome. Confronting- This is one kind of strategy which helps to focus conflict directly and solve it by mutual understanding to work it through to a satisfactory resolution. This strategy helps to maximize the chances of achieving both party goals which resulting in a win-win outcome. This strategies are effective can be chosen to win or lose by the participants. It helps to control the conflict and save the time to achieve the goal by reducing adverse harmful effects of conflicts. Avoiding and smoothing approaches are help to manage the conflict and the use of forcing approach may achieve short term goal but fail to achieve stated goal. Compromising approach help to solve conflict but always desired goals cannot be achieved. Confronting approach is the effective strategy which solve conflict problem by facing directly by mutual understanding, hence chance of win-win outcome is more when compare to any other strategy. CONCLUSION: Organization are dynamic entities, which is continously changing its internal and external environments, to develop congruousness among the people, process and structure. As discussed contemporary perspectives on conflict, tell that conflict cannot be put on end to a state in organizational life. Conflict is dynamic activity that help us to emphasize on process, meaning, and variety of procedures and relationships. I think understanding conflict help us to better understanding about organization if it is in. If there is a Conflict in any organization it help scholars and reasearchers to give insight understanding more about culture, power, change, development and other significant phenomenon in organization. Conflict may help to see the things in a new way, it help to promote different analysis, clarification in goals, increases energies, give chance for alternatives and changes, and complex problem can be solved. If conflict manage effectively it protect the organisation. Conflict enlighten the concept of rationality, which help better understanding and analyzing of organizational behavior. Organizational conflict are not evil, and in fact there is no need to eliminate it, but it should be manage properly for enhancing individuals, groups, and organizational effectiveness. It is a phenomenon, just it can be constructive or destructive effects on organization, but it completely depends on how it is managed by the management. Conflicts can be dysfunctional when people are not able to tolerate it, and the reason may be rigidity of the organization structure which gives fewer opportunities to changes. This may be because of ignorance of the participants who not give importance and ready to change any time when required. So we can say that organization conflict may be because of ignorance, intolerance, vested interests, intolerant and rigidity. As discussed earlier conflict is not necessarily a bad thing, it is can be seen as a Ã¢â¬ËconstructiveÃ¢â¬â¢ force and in certain circumstances and it can be welcomed or even encouraged. It helps improving organization design and functioning and to the decision-making process which help to adapt internal and external changes. If conflict identified and managed properly, it can help reduce the destructive influences in the organization. Organization ducation in subjects like Human Relation, Human Resource Management or Development, and Industrial Relations tell that conflict can be managed and its management is very important. And literature tells that how acknowledgement of conflict and its significant in the organization. So we can say that all type of conflicts are not bad, and it is always not necessary to remove, left, or ignore the conflict in the org anizational life but it should be manage properly so that it help for survival of the organization without any effect on organization goals. Now I can say that conflict leads to change, change leads to adaptation, and adaptation leads to survival. REFERENCES: 1. ANDERSON & KYPRIANOU. 1994. Effective Organizational Behaviour. edn. Oxford: Blackwell 2. BUCHANAN & HUCZYNSKI. 2010. Organizational Behaviour. 7th edn. England: Pearson Education Ltd 3. BUTLER & ROSE. 2011. Introduction to Organisational Behaviour. edn. London: CIPD House 4. CLEGG & HARDY. 1999. Studying Organization: Theory & method. 1st edn. London: SAGE 5. FINCHAM & RHODES, 2005. Principles of Organizational Behaviour. 4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press Inc. , New York 6. KATZ & KAHN. 1966. The Social Psychology of Organizations. edn. USA: John Wiley & Sons 7. MULLINS, J. 2010. Management & Organisational Behaviour. 9th edn. England: Pearson Education Ltd 8. NEWSTROM & DAVIS. 2002. Organizational Behaviour: Human Behavior At Work . 11th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin 9. NEWSTROM, W. 2007. Organizational Behaviour: Human Behavior at Work. 12Th edn. Singapore: McGraw-Hill/Irwin 10. ROBBINS, P. 1983. Organization Theory: The Structure and Design of Organisations. edn. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
Howls locomote fortress is a film by Hayao Miyazaki, and it follows the vivification of a young girl who is a hat-maker to many learning experiences, emotional involvements, and physiological (laborious) journeyings. She starts dark as a easy hat maker in the lead devil befalls her and meets a witch who makes her into an old woman. She runs off to try and reverse the spell, coming together a man and his friends, from inside a move castle, who journeys together, overcoming all obstacles, and finding her true ego again.This movie is mainly focusing on the fleshly journey, scarce at the aforementi wizd(prenominal) time, the characters experience not solitary(prenominal) physical journeys, but too emotional and familiar journeys of learning, and developing many feelings toward early(a) people. In the main characters perspective, the aspect shows what a journey of a livelihood she has had so far, and up to what stage of sustenance she is in time be the secernate word in this journey, since she very in short meets a woman during a windy, stormy, dark-lighting, night, who curses her into being an old woman, with no time overtaking for her.And so, in this fashion, she re-meets Howl, the person who erstwhile unless her from some blob men who were chasing her. Upon meeting him, her path on her journey changes erstwhile again from something of no apprehend (grayscale), to something that gave her hope, and allow eventually restore her (colourful). On the moving castle, she meets many friends. Not only that, but she as well finds knobs that transport her to contrastive places once she exits the door, but she is prohibited from going to the one black knob.Her journey does not fix across that one knob until abutting the ending, where, once she turns to that knob and exits, she is not only transferred through space, but also time, and into individual elses life Howls past. The non-diegetic music also helps lead into the journey, and also helps to create a change of setting. By learning of his journey about how he transformed from that kid, to that personate self, she finds out to save him, save his friends, herself, and most importantly also her enemies.This movie is extremely helpful towards the thought of journey as all the characters in it have shown a glimpse (sometimes more) of their journey to the viewer, and allows the audience to empathise with the characters. Taking a step back though, you can truly see how their past, present and future journeys atomic number 18 all integrated with separately other, influencing and intertwining each other characters journeys too, exchangeable an unbreakable web of chains.Howls travel Castle is similar to The Shawshank Redemption, as it is a film, but not only is it because of it being this text type, but also march on represents how journeys are linked together. For Howls Moving Castle, things are rehashed from the past, inside the present of this movie, but for S hawshank, Andy never had connections with the other convicts, nor did they forward the crime was committed and they were sent there. The differences send from one being a fairy-tale world, the other being like a nightmare and to, most importantly, the environment.The atmosphere and tone exercise the emotions of the characters involved as well as the way their journeys turned out, and through which way in Howls Moving Castle, the girl had to save the others, who then in turn, saved her in Shawshank however, Andy saved himself, and before hed escaped, hed influenced others to be safe and hope although both(prenominal) the endings were implied to be joyous. Also, whilst in Howls Moving Castle, there is a potty of physical journey in wrong of travelling, in Shawshank, everyone remains inside the prison, unable (or sometimes unwilling) to go out.In both films, the themes of hope and determination are prominent to the journey, although the various personas act and react in diffe rent ways. This reinforces the concept that no persons journey is identical, although it can be similar. both films are important to the journey, as it emphasises that no matter in which situation, you can appease strive for an ultimate good result, and sometimes it is possible to achieve it.